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2019年7月19日(金)13:00~16:10 第129回「制度と組織の経済学」研究会 (共催:IPP研究会)

第129回「制度と組織の経済学」研究会
■日時:2019年7月19日(金)13:00-16:10
■場所:大阪大学豊中キャンパス OSIPP棟  6階会議室
【発表者】
13:00-14:30 公文譲氏(カリフォルニア大学)
議題:"The Deep Roots of Inequality."
Abstract:
The equality of East Asian societies relative to Western Europe has been well documented in the late 19th century. This paper shows that such regional patterns may extend back over many centuries by comparing rural wealth inequality in Japan and China to Western Europe. I first present new evidence of wealth inequality from early modern Japan, 1650-1870, using a new dataset of household landholdings across 591 villages. Two facts emerge: First, Japan was highly equal relative to Western Europe, with Gini coefficients averaging 0.5 compared to 0.7-0.9 in contemporary Western Europe. Second, Japanese equality was stable compared to Western Europe where inequality trended upwards. Further, I show evidence that ancient China and Japan adopted an equal field system which kept society equal compared to medieval Europe which was already unequal circa 1300. Finally, I show evidence that differences in demographic institutions can explain why inequality outcomes diverged across these regions.
14:40-16:10 高槻泰郎氏(神戸大学)
議題:"Can Market Economy Mitigate the Influence of Climate Change? Evidence from Pre-industrial Japan (co-authored with Masahiko Shibamoto)."
Abstract:
Can market mechanism mitigate the effect of climate shocks? Results from the empirical international trade and famine literature are both ambiguous and inconclusive as regard this issue. Early modern Japan (1603-1867), characterized by (1) agricultural economy, (2) closed economy, (3) sophisticated rice market, provides us with an opportunity to delve into this old and new issue. Based on recently reconstructed paleoclimate data (rainfall and summer temperature), we found an idiosyncratic shock did not influence rice prices or cause famine, but that blanket abnormalities across the entire country did. Second we specify the VAR model to estimate the dynamic effects of the permanent and temporal climate shocks on the rice market then we found that the temporal shocks have a long-run impact on the rice market and the permanent shocks also affect the rice market, but in the short-run.
■共催:IPP研究会( http://www.osipp.osaka-u.ac.jp/ipp/index.html
■お問い合わせ:東京大学社会科学研究所 中林真幸研究室
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